1. In what way does the French minister Richelieu symbolize absolutism? What were his achievements?
Richeliu had a policy of total subordination of all groups and
institutions to the French monarchy. The nobility was long
considered the biggest threat to the centralizing goals of the
crown and a strong national state, so Richelieu sought to
restrain their power. In 1624, he re-shuffled the royal council
and eliminated any threats to power. He dominated the council,
leveling castles, long the symbol of feudal independence, and
crushed aristocratic conspiracies quickly.
His greatest accomplishment is the administrative system he established, which consisted of royal commissioners, called intendants, that ran the 32 géraliti or districts, France was made up of. They ran special tasks, like financial, judicial, and policing. As intendants’ power increased under Richelieu, so did the power of the centralized French state.
2. Why can it be said that the palace of Versailles was used as a device to ruin the nobility of France? Was Versailles a palace or prison?
Louis XIV installed his royal court at Versailles. He required all the great nobility of France, at the peril of social, political, and sometimes economic disaster, to come live at Versailles for at least part of the year. Louis XIV reduced the major threat to his power. He separated power from status and grandeur: secured the nobles' cooperation. Louis XIV required the nobles to live at the palace, so it was basically like a prison because Louis XIV required them to live there for part of the year. In the words of Saint-Simon, "Louis XIV reduced everyone to subjection…it was still a device to ruin the nobles by accustoming them to equality and forcing them to mingle with everyone indiscriminately. "
3. Define mercantilism. What were the mercantilist policies of the French minister Colbert?
Mercantilism is a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, esp. commercial activities, by and for the state. In 17th- and 18th-century economic theory, a nation’s international power was thought to be based on its wealth. Because, mercantilist theory held, resources were limited, state intervention was needed to secure the largest part of a limited resource.
Colbert insisted that the French sell abroad and buy nothing back. He abolished many domestic tariffs and enacted high foreign tariffs, which prevented foreign products from competing with French ones, and set up a system of state inspection and regulation. Colbert encouraged skilled foreign craftsmen and manufactures to immigrate to France, giving them special privileges. Also, he built roads and canals linking Mediterranean and the Bay if Biscay.
4. Was the revocation of the Edict of Nantes an error on the part of Louis XIV?
Though it is highly debatable that King Louis XIV made the correct decision in revoking the Edict of Nantes, he had many reasons for doing so. The French monarchy did not intend for religious toleration to be permanent, as religious pluralism was not regarded as a 17th century virtue. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes was also very popular, as aristocrats had wanted Louis XIV to crack down on the Protestants for a long time. Tens of thousands of Huguenot craftsmen, soldiers, and businessmen were emigrated, taking away their skills, revenues, and bitterness to Holland, England, Prussia, and Cape Town. However, modern scholars found that the revocation only caused a minor effect in the French economical development.
5. What were the reasons for the fall of the Spanish Empire?
By the seventeenth century, Spain was declining from their absolutism. The lack of a strong middle class, fiscal disorder, political incompetence, population decline, intellectual isolation, and psychological malaise contributed to such. The state debt and declining revenues caused currency devaluation and declaration of bankruptcy. Spanish kings reacted by canceling the national debt, thus ruining public confidence. They all lacked force of character and left the problems to others. Philip IV's administrator returned to the imperial tradition, reviving the war with the Dutch and creating one with France over Mantua. Spain became embroiled in the Thirty Years' War, while facing revolts in Catalonia and Portugal and defeat from France. The Treaty of Pyrenees of 1659, ended the French-Spanish wars, marked the end of Spain's great power.
6. Discuss the foreign policy goals of Louis XIV. Was he successful?
Louis XIV of France was an aggressive expansionist. He followed in the footsteps of Cardinal Richelieu in that aspect. His foreign policies were mainly against the Habsburg dynasty's power and the ownership of French-speaking territories by nations other than France. Hence, his foreign policies included many wars. He took over the Spanish Netherlands and some of the United Provinces of Holland, and Franche-Comté. However, his aggressive advances caused alliances to be formed against him which included the Habsburg domains of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Holland in all of their incarnations. Eventually, Louis XIV could not defeat the alliances, and some acquired territories were lost again in treaties, even French colonies.
7. Define absolutism. How does it differ from totalitarianism?
Absolutism is the political state where one leader posses all the power in a state. The absolute leaders believed that they had the divine right and were responsible to God. Basically, the absolute rulers believe that they were the state. For example, Louis the XIV may have said, "L’etat est moi!", which translates into "I am the state!"
Totalitarianism is when there is a centralized government on which a single party rules over the state’s political, economical, social, and cultural life without opposition. This means that there is only one political party which rules over a state. With absolutism, the king was the absolute leader and ruled over the state by himself. With totalitarianism, a political party ruled over the state.
8. What was the impact of Louis XIV's wars on the French economy and French society? Louis XIV's wars had an impact on the French economy and society. Louis recruited troops by dragooning [seizing people off the street], conscription, and lottery. This led to an impossible task: funding his enormous army of 200,000 against the coalitions of Europe and the Bank of Amsterdam and England. The minister of finance resorted to the devaluation of the currency and selling offices. This ultimately failed, and the taxation fell on the poor peasants, which led to widespread revolts in the 1690s. Bad harvests between 1688 and 1694 also led to starvation throughout France. Rising grain prices, new taxes for war on top of old ones, a drop in manufacturing, and pillaging troops brought great suffering for the people of France.
9. What were the causes of the War of the Spanish Succession? What impact did William III of England have on European events after about 1689?
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) was provoked by the territorial disputes of the previous century, and it also involved the question of succession to the Spanish throne. It was supposed to be the grandson of Louis XIV, Philip of Anjou, but the Dutch and English wouldn’t accept the French acquisition of the Spanish holdings. If Spain and France were united, the European balance of power would be upset.
William III (William of Orange) impacted European events by joining the League of Augsburg, becoming the leader of his coalition. He also got England and the Netherlands involved in the wars of the 1680s & 1690s, in which Louis XIV tried to take over Germany, and prevented France from winning any decisive victories.
10. What is constitutionalism? How does it differ from a democratic form of government? From absolutism?
Constitutionalism is when the ruling power has limitations due to set laws creating a balance between power of the government and the rights of the citizens. A constitution is an important part of constitutionalism and gets its power from the government’s recognition and serves as the people’s protector of their rights, liberties, and property. A constitutional government can either be in the form of a monarch or republic but the electorate has the ultimate power. It differs from a democracy because a true democracy grants all citizens the right to vote, where constitutionalism gave some men and no women a vote. Constitutionalism differs from absolutism because an absolutist state has one ruler who claims he has the divine right and controls everything within his state.
11. What were the attitudes and policies of James I that made him so unpopular with his subjects?
James I wasn’t interested in displaying the majesty and mystique of monarchy, he lacked the common touch. He didn’t like to wave at the crowds who waited to greet him. He was also a poor judge of character, and in a society already hostile to Scots, his Scottish accent didn’t help him. James was devoted to the theory of the divine right of kings and went so far as to lecture the House of Commons. He said that there is nothing that can stand against a king. He was implying total royal jurisdiction over the liberties, persons, and properties of English men and women formed the basis of the Stuart concept of absolutism.
12. Who were the puritans? Why did they come into conflict with James I?
An issue graver than royal extravagance and Parliament's desire to make law also disturbed the English, embittering relations between the king and the House of Commons. That problem was religion. In the early seventeenth century, increasingnumbers of English people felt dissatisfied with the Church of England established by Henry VIII and reformed by Elizabeth. The puritans were a group of people that wanted to purify the church, but after the Reformation, they believed that the changes hadn't gone far enough to rid the Anglican Church of Roman Catholic elements. James's ideas began to conflict with the Puritan beliefs. Like when Puritans wanted to abolish bishops in the Church of England, and when James I said, "No bishop, no king," he meant that the bishops were among the chief supporters of the throne. He was no Puritan, but he was Calvinist in doctrine. Yet Jamesgave the impression of being sympathetic to Roman Catholicism.
13. What were the immediate and the long-range causes of the English Civil War of 1642-1649? What were the results?
The English Civil War could have been predicted from the start of the rule of James I. Both James I and Charles I believed in their divine right and refused to share any power or decision making with the Parliament or the House of Commons. Also religion became a conflict between the monarchy and the people. The people wanted further reform in the Church of England but the kings refused. Immediate causes of the war included the Scottish invasion and the Irish rebellion. Parliament's refusal to provide Charles I with an army caused Charles to gather his own army against the Parliament. In result, Charles I was executed and England entered a period of military dictatorship.
14. Why did James II flee from England in1688? What happened
to the kingship at this point?
From the beginning James II was unpopular among the English people. He had declared himself to be a Catholic. In a Protestant dominated England, James II aroused the worst English anti-Catholic fears. King Louis XIV of France had already revoked the Edict of Nantes when James II had begun to fill positions in the military, the universities, and the local governments with Roman Catholics. His actions were taken to court, but the Catholic judges he appointed decided in favor of the king.
It looked as if the king was suspending the laws at his consent. He issued a declaration of indulgence that would grant religious freedom to all. However, seven bishops petitioned to the king that the declaration was illegal. They were imprisoned in the Tower of London, but released due to popular demand. James II had apparently received a male heir, ensuring a Catholic dynasty. These events gave the signals for revolutions. James II then fled, leaving his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her Dutch husband, William of Orange, to rule.
15. Were the events of 1688-1689 a victory for English democracy? Explain
The events of 1688-1689 were not a victory for the English democracy because the revolution placed sovereignty in Parliament, and Parliament represented the upper classes. The great majority of English people had no say in their government. Even though the men who brought the revolution set up a Bill of Rights it didn't really pertain to the people but more to a wealthy and educated group of society. The new rules set up were mainly benefiting Parliament and not the people like a democracy should. The English revolution established a constitutional monarchy; it also inaugurated an age of aristocratic government, which lasted at least until 1832 and in many ways until 1914.
16. Why is it said that Locke was the spokesman for the liberal English Revolution of 1689 and for representative government?
It is said that Locke was the spokesman for the liberal
English Revolution of 1689 and for representative government
because he maintained that people set up civil governments to
protect life, liberty, and property. A government that oversteps
its proper function-protecting the natural rights of life,
liberty, and property-becomes a tyranny. Under such a governemnt,
the people have the natural rights to rebel. Locke linked
economic liberty and private property with political freedom.
17. Describe the Dutch System of Government. How was it different from that of otherWestern European States? What wasunusual about the Dutch attitudes toward religious beliefs?
The Dutch system of government was a confederation of seven provinces with each having an oligarchy of wealthy merchants called regents. The regents handled the local domestic affairs and the provincial estate held most of the power. There was also a states general which took care of wars and foreign issues but it didn't have much power in local matters. The Dutch were different from that of Western European States because of its tolerance of all religion. The Dutch attitudes towards religious belief was unusual because at the time, patriotism was closely related with religious uniformity, but Dutch sacrificed this idea for the sake of business which paid off and attracted a great deal of foreign capitals and investments.
Study-Review Exercises for Chapter 16
Define the following key concepts and ideas
Sovereign refers to a state holding a monopoly over justice and using force within its boundaries. Due to the struggles of princes to free themselves from control by other organizations or customs and monarchs gaining control of the Roman Catholic church, rulers were able to create laws that everyone within the boundaries was subject to. IN such a state, no system of courts had to compete with another to enforce justice. The state also had the strongest army, which warranted that the royal law was to be followed by all people.
Also known as "total regulation," totalitarianism describes a state that directs all aspects of a state's culture to the benefit or interest of the state. The totalitarian state was foreshadowed by the absolutist state through the glorification of the state over all other parts of the culture. The use of war and an expansionist foreign policy as a distraction from the domestic ills of the state also influenced the rise of totalitarian regimes.
Absolutism pertains to an absolutist state, where all power, or sovereignty is manifested in the ruler. These rulers claimed to have divine right, meaning they ruled by the grace of God and were responsible only to Him. However, these absolute monarchs respected the basic laws of the land. They controlled interest groups within their territories and created bureaucracies as well, in which the offices held public/state positions, directing the economy to the benefit of the king. Absolute monarchs also kept permanent standing armies and created new methods of compulsion.
King Jean-Baptiste Colbert’s main principle of the wealth and economy of France serving the state was put into effect with a rigorous application of mercantilism. Mercantilism is an array of governmental policies used to control economic, especially commercial activities for the state. In mercantilist theory, when resources were limited, state intervention was used to secure a large part of the resource. A country had to sell more goods abroad than it brought in order to accumulate wealth, especially in gold.
Republicanism is based on the adherence to the republican principles and doctrines. In a constitutional republic, a part of constitutionalism, the reigning power is in the citizens and is exercised by the electorate’s representatives. Basically, those who had the privilege to vote got their say through the use of representatives.
Constitutionalism is the restriction of government by law. In constitutionalism there is a balance between the authority and power of the government on one side and the rights and liberties of the subjects on the other. In a constitutional state, people look upon the laws and the constitution as the protectors of their rights. Modern constitutional governments take the form of a republic or monarchy. Constitutionalism varies from a democratic government because democracy allows more freedom and rights to the people. Constitutionalism developed in the 17th century, but full democracy was achieved only until recently.
50. Cabinet Government
In the course of the 18th century, the cabinet system of government evolved. The term cabinet derives from the small private room in which English rulers consulted their chief ministers. In a cabinet system, the leading ministers, who must have seats in and the support of a majority of the House of Commons, formulate common policy and conduct the buisness of the country. During the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, who led the cabinet from 1721 to 1742, the idea developed that the cabinet was responsible to the House of Commons. In the Englsih cabinet system, both legislative power and executive power are held by leading ministers, who form the government.
51. French Classicism
Scholars characterize the art and literature of the Age of louis XIV as "French Classicism". The artists and writers of teh late 17th century deliberately imitated the subject matter and style of classical antiquity, it resembled Renaissance Italy, and that French art possesed the classical qualities of discipline, balance, and restraint. Nicholas Poussin is considered the finest example of French classicist painting. he believed that the highest aim of painting was to represent noble actions in a logical and orderly, but not realistic, way.
Quixotic means "idealistic but impractical". This term characterizes 17th century Spain. It came from a Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) who wrote the famous novel Don Quixote. The character Don Quixote lives in a world of dreams, traveling about the countryside seeking military glory. Don Quixote delineates the whole fabric of 16th century Spanish society. As a leading scholar has written, " The Spainard convinced himself that reality was what he felt, believed, and imagined. He filled the world with heroic verbations."
53. Define Commonwealth
When Charles I of England was beheaded in 1649, the kingship was abolished. A republican form of government, called a commonwealth, was proclaimed. Theoretically, legislative power rested in the surviving members of Parliament, and executive power was lodged in a council of state. In fact, the army that had defeated the royal forces controlled the government, with Oliver Cromwell controlling the army. Though called the "Protectorate," Cromwell’s rule (1653 – 1658) constituted military dictatorship.
Identify and explain the signifigance of the following people and terms
54. The French intendants
The French intendants (royal officials that held a commission to perform specific tasks) transferred information from local communities to Paris and delivered royal orders from the capital to their districts. They recruited men for the army, supervised tax collection, presided over the administration of local law, checked up on the local nobility, and regulated economic activities. Their two related purposes were to enforce royal orders in the districts of their jurisdiction and to weaken the regional nobility. As their power increased, so did the power of the centralized French state.
Protestant Maximilien de Bethune, duke of Sully, was appointed by Henry IV of France as his chief minister. Sully was an effective administrator. He combined the indirect taxes on salt, sales, and transit and leased their collection to financiers. Sully was one of the first French officials to appreciate the possibilities of overseas trade, and subsidized the Company for Trade with the Indies. He started a country-wide highway system, and in only twelve years, he and Henry IV had restored public order in France and had laid the foundations for economic prosperity.
The paulette is an annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices. Introduced by Henry IV of France in 1602-1604, it was started to compensate the sharply lowered taxes on the overburdened peasants. Civil war and poor harvests had wracked France, causing the peasants to almost live in starvation, fighting off wolves and bands of demobilized soldiers. Some provinces suffered almost complete depopulation. Commercial activity had fallento one-third its 1580 level. Henry, who genuinely cared about his people and wanted peace, slashed the taxes to help out the peasants, making the need for paulette.
The Fronde were civil wars of 1648-1653 in France. Mazarin, an Italian diplomat, acquired experience under Richelieu and became Louis XIII’s successor. When Louis XIII and Richelieu died in 1643 and a regency headed by Queen Anne of Austria governed for the child-king Louis XIV, Mazarin became the dominant power in the government. He continued Richelieu’s centralizing policies, but his attempts to increase royal revenues led to the civil wars, the Fronde. Fronde means slingshot/catapult, and frondeurs were originally street urchins who threw mud at the rich classes’ passing carriages. But frondeurs became anyone who opposed the government’s policies.
58. Cardinal Richelieu
Richelieu, a great servant of the state, set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism, and his work served as the basis for France’s cultural hegemony of Europe in the later seventeenth century. He used his strong influence over Louis XIII to exalt the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. His policy was the total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French monarchy, which even extended to literature. The constructive genius of Cardinal Richelieu is best reflected in the administrative system he established. Richelieu’s foreign policy was to destroy the Habsburg territories that surrounded France.
59. Richelieu's generalites
France was divided into 32 gerneralites (districts) in which an intendant held a commission to perform specific tasks, often financial but also judicial and policing. Intendants transmitted information from local communities to Paris and delivered royal orders from the capital to their gerneralites. Intendants were appointed directly by the monarch. They could not be natives of their districts. They were to use their power for two related purposes: to enforce royal orders in their generalites and to weaken the power of the nobility. As the intendants' power increased under Richelieu, so did the power of the centralized French state.
60. The French Academy
Richelieu's efforts at centralization extended even to literature. In 1635, he gave official recognition to a group of philologists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. Thus was born the French Academy. With Richelieu's encouragement, the French Academy began preparation of a dictionary to standardized the French language; it was completed in 1694. The French Academy survives as a prestigious society, and its membership now includes people outside the field of literature.
61. Louis XIV of France
In the reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715), the longest in European history, the French monarchy reached the peak of absolutist development. In the magnificence of his court (Versailles), in his absolute power, in the brilliance of the culture that he presided of and that permeated all of Europe, and in his remarkably long life, the "Sun King" dominated his age. He introduced significant government innovations such as "the complete domestication of the nobility." Louis's use of spying and terror (through informers and opening letters) foreshadowed some of the devices of the modern state. The money he spent on extravagance and war financially disabled France.
Versailles was a hunting lodge built by French King Louis XIII which was transformed into a palace by Louis XIV. He added wings to make it U-shaped and furnished it with inlaid tables, marble statues, tapestries, silver ewers, and beautiful furniture. The grandeur was used to awe his subjects and foreigners. The palace was also a means of controlling the nobility. Louis brought many nobles to his Versailles court, excluding them from councils and having them spend their time on operas, fetes, balls, and gossip instead of politics. By giving them high status but little power, he reduced their threat. 63. Moliere Moliere was the stage name of Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, the son of a tapestry maker who chose to enter the theater and become a playwright, stage manager, director, and actor. He wrote great comedies that are still produced even today which mocked the society of his time through caricatures based on careful observation. In Tartuffe he laughed at the religious hypocrite, LeBourgeois Gentilhomme was aimed against the social parvenu, and Les Femmes Savantes made fun of pseudo-intellectuals. Although Moliere satirized the bourgeoisie, like his patron Louis XIV, he was careful not to criticize the nobles.
Jean Racine (1639-1699) analyzed the power of love.Racine based his tragedies on Greek and Roman heroes. Several of his plays: Andromaque,Bernice, Iphiganie, and Phadre bear the names of women and deal with the power of passion in women.For simplicity of language, symmetrical structure, and calm restraint, the plays of Racine represent the fines examples of French classicism. His tragedies and Moliere's comedies arestill produced today. Racine was a contemporary unlike Moliere dissected social mores through his comedies. And throughout the works of Racine, thetheme of the conflict between good and evil was persistent.
Nicholas Poussin is considered to be one of the best examples of French classicist painting. He spent most of his time in Rome, for he found disliked the Paris atmosphere. To him, the purpose of painting was to show noble actions in a logical, orderly, but not realistic way. An example of his work is The Rape of the Sabine Women. The way he pictures people and horses are ideal- different from real life, and the Roman buildings are exact models of ancient Roman structure. In this way he reveals his attachment to classical antiquity. Poussin's work had individualistic features, which was not allowed after Louis XVI rose to power.
66. Count-Duke of Olivaries
This was the man Phillip IV left the management of his several kingdoms to. He was an able administrator who was full of energy and ideas. He thought that the solutions to Spain's problems lay in a return to its imperial tradition. This belief caused him to revive war with the Dutch after a twelve- year-truce, as well as with France over Mantua. Thus Spain was brought into the Thirty Years' War. Eventually all of this conflicts along with an empty treasury brought chaos.
67. Dutch Estates General
Each province of the Netherlands were represented by a stadholder which were elected by the States General. The Estates General were made up of wealthy merchants who handled domestic affairs. The Estates General mainly handled foreign affairs including war. The Dutch Estates General was a model of the modern constitutional state which was very rare during the seventeenth century. The Dutch were one of the rare republic countries that were economically and socially stable. This success was mainly due to the organization of the Estates General.
68. The Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company (founded in 1602) was a joint stock company that cut heavily into the Portuguese trading in East Asia. It helped establish Dutch trading posts in the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and Malacca. This Company helped bring the Dutch the wealth that raised the Dutch standard of living in the seventeenth century.
69. The Peace of Utrecht
The Peace of Utrecht ended the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713). The French and Spanish crowns were not to be united, although Philip was still the Bourbon king of Spain. France lost Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay to England. England also got Gibraltar, Minorca, and control of the African slave trade. It was an example of the balance-of-power principal, and international cooperation. It finished off the Spanish decline, expanded the British Empire, and marked the end of French expansionist policy.
70. Cabal of Charles II
When Charles II was inaugurated as the king of England, he was determined not to alienate himself from Parliament. They maintained good ties when the king appointed five men who would serve as both major advisers and members of Parliament. They were known as the Cabal, an acronym for their names, Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley-Cooper, and Lauderdale. This body was the ancestor of what would become the cabinet system.
71. Instrument of Government
The Instrument of Government was an army prepared constitution that invested executive power in a lord protector, that of which being Oliver Cromwell, and a council of state. It provided for triennial parliaments and gave parliament the sole power to raise taxes. The Instrument of Government also gave all Christians, except Roman Catholics, the right to practice their own faith, other wise known as Toleration. This was a notion that was so far ahead of its time that many Protestant sects and English people did not have the enthusiasm for it.
The Puritans were English people who believed that the Reformation had not gone far enough. The total population of Puritans in the English populous was difficult to establish, since the Puritans were the more zealous of the dominant Calvinists. They wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church of Roman Catholic elements like various vestments, ceremonial items, the position of the altar and the giving and wearing of wedding rings. The Puritans also wanted to abolish Bishops in the Church of England but like many of their calls for reformation it was passed over.
73. Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell rose in the parliamentary army and achieved nationwide fame by infusing the army with his Puritan convictions and molding it into a highly effective military machine, called the "New Model Army," which defeated the royalist forces in England. He kept a military government where he was the absolute ruler, and he enforced the Navigation Act that boosted the development of an English merchant marine and caused a war with the Dutch, which England won.
74. James II of England
In 1685, James II of England succeeded the throne, spurring English Anti-Catholic fears, which eventually caused a rebellion. An acknowledged Catholic, he promised a Roman Catholic dynasty, which Parliament feared and tried to stop with a revoked exclusion bill. Once king, James II violated the Test Act and appointed Roman Catholics as government officials, further trying to gain support by issuing indulgences granting religious freedom. His imprisoning of seven bishops of the Church of England for refusing to grant such indulgences and the birth of a male heir, which promised a continuing Catholic dynasty, led to his dethronement in 1688.
75. English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights, written by revolutionaries, became a base for the British Constitution. Formulated as direct response to Stuart absolutism, it stated that Parliament made laws unable to be suspended once passed. Parliament needed to be called at least every 3 years, and elections and debate within the sessions should be free of interference from the Crown. It granted judiciary independence and required that no standing army was necessary during peace. Protestants were allowed to bear arms while Catholics could not, but it did grant freedom of worship. However, it required that the English Monarch always be Protestant
76. John Churchill
John Churchill was one of the two great soliders that dominated the alliance against France , along with Eugene, prince of Savoy who represented the Holy Roman Empire. He was an englishman who was the duke of Marlborough. The Grand Alliance made against France consisted of the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians who wanted to prevent King Louis XIV from getting too much power in Europe
77. Identify and explain the significance of the following
people and terms: Phillip II of Spain
Phillip II of Spain caused the collapse of the Spanish economy and the end of Spanish predominance. He paid his armies and foreign debts with silver bullion, thus transmitting Spanish inflation to the rest of Europe. Prices increased throughout Europe between 1560-1600. Wages didn’t keep pace with prices that doubled, even quadrupled. Spain was hit the hardest, but all of Europe was affected. The poor and nobility suffered the most, while those in debt prospered, since debts had less value each year with increased prices.
78. Explain what each of these men believed about theplacement of authority within society.
Mazarin and his mother Anne of Austria taught LouisXIV, from
an early age, that God had established kings as his rulers on
earth.And his childhood experiences of frequently being
threatened and sometimes evenbeing treated as prisoners by
aristocratic factions helped to from hisconviction that the sole
alternative to anarchy was absolute monarchy.
Explain what each of these man believed about the placement of authority within society.
79. Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism. Richelieu's policy was the total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French Monarchy. Richelieu sought to curb the power of the nobility. He succeeded in reshuffling the royal council, eliminating such potential power brokers as the prince of Conde. Thereafter, he dominated the council in an unprecedented way. He established the administrativesystem for France. France was divided into 32 districts, with a royal intendant that held a commission to perform specific tasks. They can never be native to their districts. They were appointed by the monarchs.
80. James I
James was devoted to the theory of divine right of kings. According to James I, a monarch has a divine right to his authority and is responsible only to a God. If a king orders something evil, the subject should respond with a passive disobedience but should be prepared to accept any penalty for noncompliance.
81. Thomas Hobbes
The problem of sovereignty was vigorously debated in the middle years of the seventeenth century. In Leviathan, English philosopher and political theorist Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) maintains that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract. The power of the ruler is absolute, but kings do not hold their power by divine right. This view pleased no one.
82. John Locke
Locke said that civil governments are set up to protect life, liberty, and property. A government that oversteps its proper function becomes a tyranny. Under a tyrannical government, the people have the natural right to rebellion, but this could be avoided if the government respects the rights of citizens and people defend their liberty. Recognizing the close relationship between economic liberty and political freedom, Locke linked economic liberty and private property with political freedom; his defense of property included a justification for a narrow franchise.
Maximilien de Béthune, duke of Sully, was the devout Protestant chief minister of King Henry IV. He was appointed so that he could gain Protestant confidence that he was willing to live harmoniously, at least temporarily. He combined the indirect taxes on salt, sales, and transit and leased their collection to financiers. The number of taxes declined but revenues increased because of the revival of trade. Sully subsidized the Company for Trade with the Indies to begin possibilities of overseas trade. He began a national highway system and thought up of an international organization for the maintenance of peace.
Explain what the following events were and why they were important
84. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes
In 1685, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, which was instituted by Henry IV. The monarchy had never intended for religious toleration to be permanent, as religious pluralism was not a 17th century ideal. Louis XIV, though tolerant, did not want any religious division in his country. This was also a popular move, as aristocrats had long asked for Louis XIV to crack down on the Huguenots. Tens of thousands of Huguenot soldiers, craftsmen, and businessmen emigrated, taking away their skills, revenues, and influence. Though hatred of the French monarchy was strengthened in other countries, the adverse economic side effects of this move were minimal.
85. The Scottish revolt of 1640
In 1637, the archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, attempted to impose two new elements on the church organization in Scotland: a new prayer book, modeled on the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, and bishoprics, which the Presbyterian Scots firmly rejected. The Scots therefore revolted in 1640. This event was important because it was a contribution to the decline of royal absolutism in England. It was one of the problems that resulted from the gravest issue, which was over religion. Many were dissatisfied with the Anglican Church and felt that the reformation had not gone far enough.
86. War of the Spanish Succession
This war, provoked by territorial disputes, also involved the question of Spanish succession. Since Charles II was sexually impotent, European powers agreed by treaty to partition Spanish possessions to Charles' brother-in-laws. However, Charles left Spain to Louis XIV's grandson. The will rejected the union of France and Spain, but Louis controlled France. He reneged on the treaty. An alliance formed to prevent France's dominance and check France's commercial power. The war concluded at Utrecht in 1713, where the partition's principle was applied. The war had international consequences, due to the balance-of-power principle applied. It also gave European powers cooperation experience.
87. The Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution included events in England from 1688 to 1689. What happened was that kingship was passed on without bloody wars, and kingship was presented by Parliament. William and Mary, recognizing Parliament's supremacy, indirectly put an end to the idea of divine-right monarchy. The Glorious Revolution also established the division of sovereignty between the monarchy and Parliament, and that the king ruled with the approval of those under him. Those who brought about the revolution set out to make it permanent with the Bill of Rights, which was the basis for the modern British constitution.
88. The English Civil War of 1642-1649
The English civil war lasted eight years, from 1642 to 1649. Its importance was the fact that it was waged because of the debate between whether power rests in a representative form of government (Parliament), or in a sovereign ruler given power by God (divine-right monarchy). The result of the war was that Oliver Cromwell, controller of the army, became the military ruler of England. He ruled as a dictatorial figure, which was not popular and led to the restoration of the monarchy. Once again, the English were faced with the dilemna of where power should be held.
Major Political Ideas for Chapter 16
164. What were the major characteristics of absolutism and how does it as a political system, differ from totalitarianism?
There were many characteristics to absolutism. Absolute leaders had to regulate all competing organizations and jurisdictions. They got rid of certain liberties that had previously been held by certain groups and provinces. Absolute rulers had finally gotten the cooperation of the class that had threatened the monarchy for a long time, the nobility class. The absolute kings also controlled the religious groups. Absolute kings were able to keep a permanent standing army (even when there was war and when there was peace). These armies were the basic signification of an absolute state. The basic success of the absolute monarch was how the solved their money problems. They created state beauocracies, consisting of career officials appointed by the king, which centered the economy of the state to the king by forcing taxes on the people or raising revenue in other ways. On the other hand, totalitarianism centered all the aspects of the state’s culture, which consisted of its education, religion, and economy, in the interest of the state. Basically, totalitarianism is ruling with total regulation.
165. What is constitutionalism? What is the source of power within a constitutional state? How does constitutionalism differ from absolutism? Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. It implies a balance between the authority and power of the government on one hand and the rights and liberties of its subjects. In a constitutional state the state must govern according to the laws and the people look to the constitution, which may be written or unwritten, as the protector of their rights, liberty, and property. It differed from absolutism because in an absolutist state, a single ruler governed the nation. The source of power lay with the ruler, and not the government [therefore not the people]. Also, absolute rulers regulated religious sects, abolished liberties, and secured the help of their greatest threats, the nobility.
166. In 1649 England declared itself a commonwealth, or republican form of government. What is a republican state? Where does power reside in such a state?
A republican state is where certain individuals represent the people. It took the place of sovereignty, which was the view of the power of the ruler being absolute, and kings not holding their power by divine right. When Charles I was beheaded, people were able to change to the commonwealth. In this, the legislative power resided in the remaining Parliament members, while the executive power was lodged in a council of state. But overall in England, the Parliament had control of all the important matters at hand, and took care of everything, and was the real power behind the ruler. Whatever the ruler wanted, he had to get permission from the Parliament.
Geography for Chapter 16
171. Study Map 16.3, "Seventeenth Century Dutch Commerce," in your textbook.
Describe and define the Dutch empire in terms of area-ports involved and products. Are their any geographical explanations for this mighty empire? The Dutch empire spanned throughout the world, from cities in South Africa to Capetown on the tip of Africa to several cities in Asia. The Dutch enjoyed products from their own cities, such as sugar from Guiana and Dutch Brazil, cloves and cinnamon from Ceylon, cloth from Madras, tea and Tea from Batavia, spices from Macassar, and pepper form Malacca. However, there are no geographical explanations for the Dutch empire, rather it became a mighty empire because of its policy of toleration, which attracted foreign capital and investment as well as people of all races to their ports to trade.
172. a. Explain how each of the territories was acquired and from whom? B. What Changes in the balance of power occurred as a result of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713?
a)Each territory was acquired aggressively by Louis XIV because of his expansionist policy. In 1667, he used a dynastic excuse acquiring twelve towns. Five years later he personally led an army into Holland, which ended in the Treaty of Nijmegn gaining Louis Flemish towns and Franche-Comté. Continuing with his aggression, he continued, sending massive troops into additional territories, seizing other places.
b)The Peace of Utrecht represented the balance of power principle in operation, setting limits on the extent to which any one power could expand. The treaty completed the decline of Spain and it vastly expanded the British Empire. It also gave European powers experience in international cooperation, also ending the French expansionist policy.
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